Geography – Key Stage 5

Year 12

Half TermTopics to be coveredKey skills covered
Autumn HT 1Glacial systems and landscapes:

1. Glaciers as natural systems
2. The nature and distribution of cold environments
3. Systems and processes
4. Glaciated landscape development
5. Human impacts on cold environments
6. Case studies: local scale and ‘beyond’ the UK
1. Quantitative and qualitative skills
To include:
observation skills, measurement and geospatial
mapping skills and data manipulation and statistical skills applied to field measurement.
Autumn HT 2Changing places:

1. The nature and importance of places
2. Changing places – relationships, connections, meaning and representation
3. Relationships and connections
4. Meaning and representation
5. Place studies: local scale and ‘contrasting’ study
1. Quantitative and qualitative skills
To include:
geospatial data must be used to investigate and present place characteristics
qualitative approaches involved in representing place
analysing critically the impacts of different media on place meanings and perceptions.
The use of different types of data should allow the development of critical perspectives on the data categories and approaches.
Suitable data sources could include:
• statistics, such as census data
• maps
• geo-located data
• geospatial data, including geographic information systems (GIS) applications
• photographs
• text, from varied media
• audio-visual media
• artistic representations
• oral sources, such as interviews, reminiscences, songs, etc.
Spring HT 1Hazards:

1. The concept of hazard in a geographical context
2. Plate tectonics
3. Volcanic hazards
4. Seismic hazards
5. Storm hazards
6. Fires in nature
Case studies: local scale and ‘beyond the UK
1. Quantitative and qualitative skills
To include:
observation skills, measurement and geospatial mapping skills and data manipulation and statistical skills applied to field measurement.
Spring HT 2Geography fieldwork investigation and geographical skills - minimum 2 days fieldwork:

One Human and one Physical geography investigation

Preparation for fieldwork, including background reading, drawing up aims and objectives for the enquiry, planning research in the field and from secondary sources, using data sampling techniques and carrying out health and safety procedures.
• Collection of primary data in the field and using secondary data sources.
• Processing and presenting data using relevant graphical and cartographical techniques.
• Analysing data, including using statistical techniques where relevant.
• Drawing conclusions related back to the original aims and objectives and linking these conclusions to both the place studied and the general ideas forming the basis of the enquiry.
• Reviewing the success, or otherwise, of all stages of the enquiry.
• Considering how the enquiry could be further developed.
1. Core skills:
Use and annotation of illustrative and visual material: base maps, sketch maps, OS maps (at a variety of scales), diagrams, graphs, field sketches, photographs, geospatial, geo-located and digital imagery.
• Use of overlays, both physical and electronic.
• Literacy – use of factual text and discursive/creative material and coding techniques when analysing text.
• Numeracy – use of number, measure and measurement.
• Questionnaire and interview techniques.

2. Cartographic skills:
• Atlas maps.
• Weather maps – including synoptic charts (if applicable).
• Maps with located proportional symbols.
• Maps showing movement – flow lines, desire lines and trip lines.
• Maps showing spatial patterns – choropleth, isoline and dot maps.

3. Graphical skills:
• Line graphs – simple, comparative, compound and divergent.
• Bar graphs – simple, comparative, compound and divergent.
• Scatter graphs, and the use of best fit line.
• Pie charts and proportional divided circles.
• Triangular graphs.
• Graphs with logarithmic scales.
• Dispersion diagrams.

4. Statistical skills:
• Measures of central tendency – mean, mode, median.
• Measures of dispersion – range, inter-quartile range and standard deviation.
• Inferential and relational statistical techniques to include Spearman’s rank correlation and application of significance tests.

5. ICT skills:
• Use of remotely sensed data (as described above in Core skills).
• Use of electronic databases.
• Use of ICT to generate evidence of many of the skills provided above such as producing maps, graphs and statistical calculations.
Summer HT 1Revision
Summer HT 2A2 Course starts (5 weeks)

Contemporary Urban Environments:
1. Urbanisation
2. Urban forms
3. Social and economic issues associated with urbanisation

Year 13

Half TermTopics to be coveredKey skills covered
Autumn HT 1Plate Tectonics and Associated Hazards

1. The causes and main characteristics of earthquakes
2. Tsunamis – characteristics and causes.
3. Two case studies of recent (ideally within the last 30 years) seismic events should be undertaken from contrasting areas of the world.
The following skills apply throughout the A2 course:

1. Graph skills – interpretation and analysis
2. Annotation of illustrative material, base maps, sketch maps, OS maps, diagrams, graphs, sketches, photographs etc
3. Synopticity - identify and analyse the connections between the different aspects of geography
4. ICT Skills - use of remotely sensed data – photographs, digital images including those captured by satellite, and GIS Systems
5. Research skills
6. Analyse, interpret and evaluate geographical information, issues and viewpoints and apply understanding in unfamiliar contexts.
7. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the content, concepts and processes.
8. Use of a variety of stems in questions – for example analyse, evaluate, discuss, compare
9. Draw on their understanding of the connections between different aspects of the subject represented in the specification and demonstrate their ability to ‘think like a geographer’.
10. Select and use a variety of methods, skills and techniques (including the use of new technologies) to investigate questions and issues, reach conclusions and communicate findings.
Autumn HT 2World Cities

Global patterns

Contemporary urbanisation processes
1. Characteristics, causes and effects of each of the following:
2. Urbanisation
3. Suburbanisation
4. Counter-urbanisation
5. Re-urbanisation
6. Contrasting case studies within countries

Urban decline and regeneration within urban areas
1. Characteristics and causes of urban decline.
2. Urban regeneration

Retailing and other services
1. The decentralisation of retailing and other services – causes and impacts.
2. 1 case study of an out of town shopping centre
3. The redevelopment of urban centres – impacts and responses, including one case study
Spring HT 1World Cities

Contemporary sustainability issues in urban areas
1. Waste management
2. Transport and its management:

1. Nature of ecosystems
Structure of ecosystems, energy flows, trophic levels, food chains and food webs.
2. Ecosystems in the British Isles over time
Succession and climatic climax: illustrated by psammoseres.
The characteristics of the climatic climax: temperate deciduous woodland biome.
The effects of human activity on succession –
illustrated by one plagioclimax - heather moorland.
3. The biome of tropical equatorial rainforests
Ecological responses
Adaptations by vegetation and animals.
Human activity and its impact on the biome.
Development issues to include aspects of biodiversity & potential for sustainability.
Spring HT 2Ecosystem issues on a local scale: impact of human activity
1. Changes in ecosystems resulting from urbanisation.
2. Urban niches. Colonisation of wasteland: the
development of distinctive ecologies along routeways.
3. The planned and unplanned introduction of new species and the impact of this.
4. Changes in the rural/urban fringe.
5. Ecological conservation area case study

Ecosystem issues on a global scale
1. The relationships between human activity, biodiversity and sustainability.
2. The management of fragile environments
(conservation versus exploitation): two contrasting case studies of recent (within the last 30 years) management schemes in fragile environments should be undertaken.
Summer HT 1Geographical Issue Evaluation (pre-release)
Unit 4B is an issue evaluation exercise and, as
such, demands the development of the range of geographical skills, knowledge and understanding identified in this specification.
The Advance Information Booklet is to be opened and issued to candidates on or after 22 March for the June examination.

Interpret a range of data and resources provided
for them in the Advance Information Booklet (AIB)
• use techniques to present and analyse data from the AIB
• consider how additional information could be
collected using fieldwork, internet research and
other methods
• relate the data to the body of geographical
knowledge and understanding developed through their AS and A2 studies
• where necessary, carry out further research into the issue or the area referred to in the AIB
• be able to recognise and define an issue
• consider evidence from different points of view
• recognise shortcomings of the data and consider other possible sources through which those shortcomings could be remedied
• establish criteria for evaluation of the issue or for decision-making
• evaluate a range of options concerning the
management of an issue or of a decision
• identify and analyse potential areas of conflict
• consider ways of resolving or reducing conflict
• recommend a way of managing the issue or making a decision – and justify their recommendation
• suggest the possible impact of action that could
result from their recommendation
• review the process of issue evaluation.
Summer HT 2ExamsExams